From October 1, 1814 to June 9, 1815 – the Congress of Vienna, which lasted almost a year, brought together representatives of almost all European countries, whose international relations were governed by treaties. The main goal was to establish the status quo before the Great French Revolution, to establish the original ruling families on the thrones and to make significant regional changes in Europe. Their list is only extensive. Among other things, Austria won Venice, Trieste, Tyrol and Dalmatia, but lost to Belgium. Bessarabia and Finland fell to Russia. From the primary position of Warsaw, Russia created the Kingdom of Poland, however, in personal solidarity with it. For example, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland received Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa and Sri Lanka. Germany, devastated by the Napoleonic Wars, also changed when the German League was formed as a free organization of 39 countries (including the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margreviet of Moravia). Names like Van Meternich or de Tolerant, who were key architects of the policy of equality created in Congress, speak for themselves. The balance of this policy lasted from 1914 after the Vienna Congress until World War I and was overseen by a coalition of Austria, Prussia and Russia, often referred to as the Concert of the Great Powers.
Why the journey to history? Richard n. Hussey and Charles A. Kupson’s joint article was published in the prestigious American Journal of Foreign Affairs on March 23 this year, which deals primarily with foreign policy issues. Chairman of the First Foreign Relations Council (CFR). It was founded in 1921 and is the most important non-profit organization whose members can only be US citizens. The membership site is made up of politicians, big business owners, bankers and lawyers. He is also the publisher of the two foreign affairs in which the mentioned article was published. The Council aims to discuss foreign policy issues and make recommendations for US foreign policy. The second author – in addition to his position as Professor of International Relations at Georgetown University – was one of the leaders of the Council. So their joint article definitely deserves attention.
“The international system is at a historic impetus,” the authors begin. “As Asia continues its economic rise, two centuries of Western domination of the world will end, first under Box Britannica and then under Box Americana. The West is losing not only its material domination, but also its ideological influence. It seeks to challenge its attitudes: US President Joe Biden is determined to restore American democracy, renew US leadership in the world and control an epidemic of catastrophic human and economic consequences, but Biden’s victory was imminent, and democracy on both sides of the Atlantic will not easily disappear. Beyond the poles, they do not preclude the arrival of a multi-polar and ideologically diverse world. History clearly shows that s. The best power rivalries for hierarchy and ideology will continue to lead to great wars. To avoid this, the West must calmly acknowledge that the post-World War II Western-led liberal order will not ensure global stability in the 21st century. “
“The best way to improve stability is a global concert of the great powers.” Both writers point directly to the experience of the Vienna Congress in the 19th century. “As the history of the concert of these great powers has shown – its members are Great Britain, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria – a group of leading nations can generally suppress geopolitical and ideological rivalry.”
While this is certainly not the purpose, the recent meeting between Chinese and US officials in Anchorage provided current support for these views. Chinese Secretary of State and National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan had to ask Foreign Minister Wang Yi and China’s top foreign policy official Yang Jiechi – the aim of China’s foreign policy is to pursue peaceful development. “We do not believe in a violent invasion, or we will overthrow other regimes in various ways, because all of this will cause unrest and instability in this world. In the end, it will do no good to the United States. We believe that. ”But that was a long way off. In the end, Yang Jiechi insisted that the United States did not represent international public opinion in the same way that it does not represent the West. The United States does not represent the whole world, it only refers to the US government. I do not think the majority of countries in the world will recognize that. “And when Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov arrived in Beijing, a statement said: For periods of high turbulence and rapid change. In these circumstances, we call on the international community to set aside differences, strengthen mutual understanding, foster cooperation in the interests of public security and geopolitical stability, and work together to create a better, more democratic and rational multipolar world order.
At first glance, they may seem like mere words. But I think both authors of the foreign article described the current political situation in the world very accurately. This is explained by the actual political and economic actions they adopt. The end of last year and the beginning of this year brought the facts. In November 2020, a group of 15 countries in the Asia-Pacific region signed the world’s largest free trade agreement in Hanoi. The agreement covers more than two billion people and a third of the world economy. Sure, China is a participant, but not the United States. For example, unlike South Korea, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, there are certainly countries that can be described as US allies. The lead architect of the deal has been negotiating and preparing since 2013.
After a seven-year marathon, another important agreement was signed late last year – this time on investment between China and the EU. Thanks to this agreement, which has not yet been approved by the European Parliament, European companies have the opportunity to operate in areas such as real estate, private hospitals, advertising, maritime transport, and cloud telecommunications services. The requirement for companies to operate in a joint venture with a Chinese partner should be abolished. Also noteworthy is China’s commitment not to force foreign partners to change technology.
However, China’s economic and political offensive is far from over. In late March, the Chinese Foreign Minister visited Iran, where he and his Iranian ministerial colleague Jawad Zarif signed a cooperation agreement for the next 25 years. Although the signed text has not been released, observers say there should be close cooperation in the oil, nuclear and military sectors. It is still too early to speculate on the impact of this agreement on the overall structure of the Middle East. However, it is clear that this whole move goes beyond the United States.
The multipolar world order in practice, so this can be easily summarized. This certainly does not mean that the individual verticals of this angle will not stop trying to gain some advantage and profit for themselves at the expense of others. In the classical form, this can be seen in the relationship with Russia. No one dares to go into direct military confrontation with him because he can only imagine the consequences. But the United States does not care about the principle of “ankle to ankle” – preferably at someone else’s feet. See Ukraine. Or Belarus, Navalnij and so on. However, the danger of this policy is that conflicts can arise even if no one really wants to.
Isn’t this the twist of a new concert of a big Tehran, a new Yalta, a new Potsdam? The historically inseparable role of world history lies far ahead of the major forces of this era. It seems that neither Russia nor China will oppose such a solution. As the article quoted in foreign affairs points out, the United States may also be maturing in this knowledge. Finally, a note on Czech politics: it would be a decision without us. It depends on many things that we do not lose the Czech national interest. However, I will not look for him in worshiping anyone.