Russia has another Sputnik

Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation, announced the registration of the first vaccine against Kovit-19 on August 11, 2020. The first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth was named the Aviation Rocket. At that time, Russia won the space race with the United States.

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He bet on a prestigious championship this time around. Virologist Lipor Grofofer, Director, Center for Biology, Academy of Sciences But it draws attention to the potential risks: “After the vaccine tested on 77 soldiers, the Russians went for widespread vaccination, which is certainly not enough.”

The Sputnik V vaccine was developed at the Nikolai Kamalaji Institute of Epidemiological and Microbiological Research in Moscow, where, according to Grofofer, the best specialists work. Nevertheless, he is cautious.

“They are very confident in virology and even engage in forbidden things. Sputnik is a majestic generation vector vaccine. I hope that even the next technological steps will meet the demands of civilized nations in the democratic world,” he says.

Already in mid-October, Russian researchers developed a second vaccine, Ebivacorona. Then they introduced a third – Sputnik-Light.

On what principle do Russian vaccines work? What do Russian scientists say about them? You will find out in the audio recording.

China: Salvation of Neglected Areas?

The vaccines of the Chinese pharmaceutical companies Sinovac and Sinoform, of which 31 million have already been vaccinated, have a very significant impact. They are vaccinated with, for example, in Turkey and Brazil, but also in poorer countries in Asia or Latin America. However, individual performance reports vary widely, with 50 to 90 percent of performance reported.

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Chinese vaccines such as Spatnik V are not yet approved for use by European pharmaceutical companies. Hungary is the only EU country that has allowed these products to be used urgently in its territory.

Ivana Karaskova, of the Association for International Affairs, a researcher and expert in China, recalls that a total of four companies in China are vaccinated. The spread of Chinese vaccines to neglected areas is not only an economic issue but also a diplomatic issue.

“China is shaping its sector, driven by plundering capitalism and trying to show the West that it cares only for itself. China is said to be making progress for all human beings,” explains Karaskov. .

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How do Chinese vaccines work? What are Beijing’s goals for them? Listen to the audio.

India: Vaccinated faces for Bollywood star

India is one of the few countries to be vaccinated as a species. More than a billion countries began vaccinating in January, with plans to vaccinate 300 million people by July. Indians have a choice of purely Indian Kovacin or Covshield, which is made according to the recipe of the British pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca.

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Until recently, the small pharmaceutical company Bharat Biotech developed the vaccine entirely in India at the time of registration and was approved by the Drug Controller of India without a final testing phase. So, many people in India, including the doctors there, do not trust her much.

“This is a traditional, classic vaccine. Above all, the Czech Republic has been interested in developing such a passive vaccine in our country from the beginning. Technical reliability and good manufacturing practices are problematic, with which Asian countries are scorpions,” concludes virologist Lipor Grofofer.

The faces of the vaccine in India are the stars of Bollywood, and they are having such a huge impact on the population that we can never even imagine in Europe. “Including poor people,” immunologist Zděněk tipl points out.

India uses its position as a pharmaceutical power to strengthen its position in the South China Sea, says tipl: “Within the first week, it began importing two types of vaccines into neighboring countries – for example, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.”

What is a dirty vaccine? What is the effectiveness of Indian vaccines? Listen to the audio.

Fair distribution

While rich countries are likely to be vaccinated later this year, poorer areas – such as sub-Saharan Africa – will not have joint immunity until 2023. According to some estimates, even a year later.

The Kovacs initiative is an important tool for the effective distribution of vaccines so that they quickly reach poor countries. According to Andre Taylor of the American Duke Global Health Institute, the program has been successful in overcoming an epidemic, but it has not been enough.

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“The goal is to provide the vaccine to 30 percent of the people in participating states – including the poorest countries,” says Taylor.

However, if the imbalances in the availability of vaccines cannot be reversed, we will soon see rich countries gaining collective immunity, but most of the world’s population will not be vaccinated yet.

At the same time, epidemiologist Peter Smezkel explains that such a situation would not be favorable even in developed countries: “In vaccinated countries, mutations are more likely to occur. That vaccine mutation will return to developed countries. ”

Even with regard to the risks associated with new mutations, according to Andre Taylor, it is time for the leaders of these countries to reconsider their current approach: “Rich countries, including EU member states, Canada, the United States and the United States, should begin to make donations – whether through coax or other initiatives OK. “

Why is it important for people at risk around the world to get vaccinated on time? Listen to the audio.

Vaccine diplomacy

Harsh Bandh, a political scientist at King’s College London, explains that “the term vaccine diplomacy is used to achieve the broader foreign policy goals that are inextricably linked with the production of vaccines and other drugs in this crisis.”

Bond, who hails from India, points out that his own country used the strength of its pharmaceutical industry to create the image of a reliable and determined ally in the early stages of the corona virus epidemic.

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“The Western media gives the impression that this is a chaotic country, not effectively managed. However, this crisis is an opportunity for India to present itself in a different light – as a country that can manage the crisis and focus on growth, production and global distribution,” he comments.

India initially offered vaccines to its neighbors, but according to the plant, it wants to strengthen its influence in the entire South Asian region. It wants to be more transparent and credible compared to China. Also, vaccine diplomacy is not new.

“One of China’s goals is to present its ‘soft power’ and thus increase its appeal to developing countries, which could strengthen China’s influence and help achieve other policy goals – for example, China has negotiated with some Southeast Asian countries, with which there are regional conflicts. He expects the situation to be mild, says Yen Chung Chang, a global health expert at the Council on Foreign Relations.

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Russia, which presents its Sputnik V as the “first registered vaccine in the world”, is once again using its vaccine to strengthen good relations – for example by signing sales agreements with Venezuela, Serbia and Hungary. However, some Western countries also affect the supply of vaccines if they invest in their development.

Hear more about vaccine diplomacy in the audio recording.

Vaccines actually work, which shows in Israel

In return for sharing data on the course of vaccination, pharmaceutical companies have pledged to provide priority vaccines to Israel. About 40 percent of Israelis were vaccinated with at least one dose in February, and less than a third of the population received the required two vaccines.

The first results are promising – vaccines seem to work. “The results turn out to be very promising, perhaps it exceeds expectations. Despite the fact that results are obtained very soon after vaccination, one can expect the results to be even better at that time interval,” said Veklaw Hoge from the Academy of Molecular Genetics.

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So far, at some age, the effectiveness of the vaccine seems to be up to fifty percent. However, this data is greatly affected by the fact that the monitoring is carried out for a short period of time. “Those who have been vaccinated recently have not yet developed the immunity to fully resist,” explains Hodge.

The success of the Israeli vaccination campaign is rapidly becoming a politician. “Benjamin Netanyahu claims to be the key architect of the success – he has organized enough vaccinations, he has teamed up with pharmaceutical companies and has received major credit,” comments Irina Galhouse, a Middle East researcher and expert.

What are the political issues with vaccination in Israel? What is the impact of the rapid development of the vaccine on the development of the Israeli vaccine? It responds to the last part of the science series.

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